Category Archives: Aquarium Disease

Helpful Aquarium & Pond Keeping Acronyms, Abbreviations

While not a complete list, these are acronyms I have found useful and many of my professional aquarium keeping friends have “thrown around”

  • A:

    AAP- An online aquarium & pond supply company, well known for their vast experience and research based information library.
    AMP – Ampere; is the SI unit of electric current. Reference: Ampere; Wikipedia
    AA – Amino Acid
    AC – Activated Carbon, a chemical filtration media.
    AC – Alternating Current
    Acan – Acanthastrea, a genus of large stony coral.
    Acro – Acropora, a genus of small stony coral. Reference: Acropora Coral Information and Care; Lighting, Amino Acids, more
    AEFW – Acropora (Acro) Eating Flat Worms
    ALK – Alkalinity, the measure of the alkaline buffering capacity of water. Reference: Aquarium Chemistry Complete
    ATC – Automatic Temperature Control

  • B:

    BA – Bubble Algae
    BB – Beneficial Bacteria
    BBA – Black Beard Algae. Reference: Aquarium Algae Control
    BBS – Baby Brine Shrimp
    BGA – Blue-Green Algae. Reference: Blue Grean Algae; Cyanobacteria
    BN – Bristle Nose Pleco, Ancistrus sp, a genus of plecos.
    BOD – Biological Oxygen Demand
    BPS – Bubbles Per Second, used as a measure of the CO2 rate entering an aquarium by advanced planted aquarium keepers.
    BTA – Bubble Tip Anemone
    BTU – British Thermal Unit

  • C:

    Ca – Calcium, an alkaline earth metal. Reference: Aquarium Chemistry Complete
    Ca(OH)2 – Calcium Hydroxide, used to make Kalkwasser. Reference: Aquarium Chemistry Complete
    CaCl2 – Calcium Chloride
    CaCO3 – Calcium Carbonate. Reference: Aquarium Chemistry Complete
    CAE – Chinese Algae Eater
    CBB – Copper Banded Butterfly
    CBS – Coral Banded Shrimp
    CC – Cubic Centimeter
    CC – Crushed Coral, sized #2 through #5. Reference: Aquarium Substrate
    CFL – Compact Fluorescent Lamp
    CFM – Cubic Feet per Minute
    Cl – Chlorine
    CL – Closed Loop
    CMS – Cubic Meters per Second
    CO2 – Carbon Dioxide, a colorless gas of one carbon and two oxygen atoms.
    CO3 – Carbonate
    CRS – Crystal Red Shrimp, Caridina cantonensis
    Cu – Copper, a reddish metallic element.
    CUC – Clean Up Crew, critters that remove algae and detritus.
    CWC – Continuous Water Change. Reference: Aquarium Cleaning
    Cyano – Cyanobacteria, commonly referred to as slime algae. Reference: Blue Grean Algae; Cyanobacteria

  • D:

    DC – Direct Current
    DD – DownDraft, a type of protein skimmer.
    DI – De-ionized water, also known as distilled water depending upon method used to achieve the same results which is completely mieral and ion free water. Reference: Do Fish Drink? Use of RO/DI, Soft Water for Aquarium; Osmoregulation in Fish

  • E:

    None at this time

  • F:

    FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions, acronym of speech
    Fe – Iron
    FO – Fish Only, a type of marine aquarium
    FOWLR – Fish Only With Live Rock, reef aquaria with no corals but with “live rock”
    Frag – Fragment of coral, usually acropora, that grows into a new piece of coral
    Fragging – Similar to above, this is the act of growing new corals using pieces of other corals
    Fuge – Refugium
    FW – Fresh Water

  • G:

    GAL – Gallon
    GBR – German Blue Rams, Mikrogeophagus ramirezi
    GBR – Great Barrier Reef
    GBTA – Green Bubble Tip Anemone
    GFCI – Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter, an AC plug designed to prevent electrical shock.
    GFI – Ground Fault Interrupter
    GFO – Granular Ferric Oxide, a chemical filtration media generally used for phosphate & silicate removal. Reference: Aquarium/Pond Filter Media

  • GH – General Hardness, a measure of calcium and magnesium. Reference: Aquarium Chemistry Complete
    GHA – Green Hair Algae. Reference: Aquarium Algae Control
    GPD – Gallons Per Day, a measurement of flow.
    GPH – Gallons Per Hour, a measurement of flow.
    GPM – Gallons Per Minute, a measurement of flow.
    GSA – Green Spot Algae. Reference: Aquarium Algae Control
    GSP – Green Star Polyps

  • H:

    H2S – Hydrogen Sulfide
    HCO3 – Hydrogen Carbonate
    HID – High Intensity Discharge lighting, metal halide and mercury vapor. Reference: Aquarium Lighting; Complete
    HITH – Hole in the Head, a fish ailment, common with cichlids. Reference: Hole in the Head, HITH Disease in Fish
    HLLE – Head and Line Lateral Erosion, a fish ailment, more common in marine species. Reference: What is a lateral line in fish? The functions and diseases of the lateral line
    HO – High Output fluorescent light
    HOB – Hang On Back filter, also a term for a type of skimmer. Reference: Aquarium Filtration
    HQI – Mercury (Hg) Quartz Iodide, a type of metal halide lamp. Reference: Aquarium Lighting; Complete

  • I:

    I – Iodide
    IO3 – Iodate
    IR – Infrared, a type of light with a longer wave length than visible light. Reference: Aquarium Lighting; Complete

  • J:

    None at this time

  • K:

    K – Kelvin rating, color temperature of the light source. Reference: Aquarium Lighting; Complete
    K – Potassium
    KALK or KW- Kalkwasser, German for calcium hydroxide solution or limewater. Reference: Aquarium Chemistry Complete
    kg/L – kilograms per liter
    KH – Carbonate Hardness, a measure of carbonates. Reference: Aquarium Chemistry Complete
    KI – Potassium Iodide
    KMnO4 – Chemical formula for potassium permanganate. Reference: Aquarium Medications Part 3; Potassium Permanganate
    kWh – KiloWatt-Hour

  • L:

    L – Liters
    LED – Light Emitting Diodes. Reference: Aquarium Lighting; Complete
    LFS – Local Fish Store (or Shop)
    lm – Lumen, the unit for amount of light from a light source. Reference: Aquarium Lighting; Complete
    LPD – Liter Per Day, a measurement of flow (metric).
    LPH – Litre Per Hour, a measurement of flow (metric).
    LPM – Liters Per Minute, a measurement of flow (metric).
    LPS – Large Polyped Scleractinian, a stony coral, has large and soft polyps. Reference: Acropora Coral Information and Care; Lighting, Amino Acids, more
    LPS – Local Pet Store
    LR – Live Rock, rock with living organisms including nitrifying and de-nitrifying bacteria within it. Reference: Marine Aquarium Care Basics
    LS – Live Sand, sand with living organisms including nitrifying and de-nitrifying bacteria within it.
    LTA – Long Tentacle Anemone
    Lx or Lux – the amount of light per square meter (lm/m2). Reference: Aquarium Lighting; Complete

  • M:

    Ma- MiliAmps
    MACNA – Marine Aquaria Conference of North America, held annually
    MASNA – Marine Aquarium Societies of North America
    MCF – Midwest Coral Farms, a well known coral farm in the Chicago area.
    MEQ/L – Milli-Equivalents per Liter, a measure of alkalinity.
    Mg – Magnesium, a trace mineral. Reference: Aquarium Chemistry Complete
    mg/L – Milligrams Per Liter, 1 mg/L = 1 ppm (parts per million).
    MH – Metal Halide light. Reference: Aquarium Lighting; Complete
    MTS – Multiple Tank Syndrome
    Mv – MilliVolts
    MW – Microworms

  • N:

    N – Nitrogen
    Na – Sodium
    NaCO3 – Sodium Carbonate
    NaOH – Sodium Hydroxide
    NH3 – Ammonia, a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen. Reference: Aquarium/Pond Nitrogen Cycle
    NH4 – Ammonium, a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen.
    nm – NanoMeter, commonly used as a unit for wavelength(color) of light. Reference: Aquarium Lighting; Complete
    NO2 – Nitrite, a product of ammonia oxidation.
    NO3 – Nitrate, a result of nitrites converted by Nitrobacter bacteria. Reference: Aquarium/Pond Nitrogen Cycle
    NTS – New Tank Syndrome

  • O:

    O2 – Oxygen, a colorless, tasteless, odorless gaseous element OEBT – Orange Eye Blue/Black Tiger shrimp
    ORP – Oxidation Reduction Potential, more correctly now known as Redox balance which is the blance of both Oxidation AND Reduction, both proven to be essential for life, including aquatic. Reference: Aquarium Redox

  • P:

    P – Phosphorus
    PAS – photosynthetic action spectrum, another term for PUR. Reference: Aquarium Lighting; Complete & PUR vs PAR in Aquarium Reef/Planted Lighting; LED Wavelengths
    P04 – Phosphate
    PAMR – Professional Aquarium Maintenance & Research. An abbreviation or credential applied to persons with years of experience in professional aquarium/pond keeping and research, as opposed to the many posers lurking in Facebook groups and Yahoo Answers.
    PAR – Photosynthetically Active Radiation. Reference: Aquarium Lighting; Complete & PUR vs PAR in Aquarium Reef/Planted Lighting; LED Wavelengths
    PC Power Compact fluorescent light
    pH – Potential Hydrogen, a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Reference: Aquarium Chemistry Complete
    PNWMAS – Pacific Northwest Aquarium Society
    PO4 – Phosphate
    pods – A popular term for Copepods
    PP – Potassium Permanganate, a chemical used in fish baths & swab as well as used to kill snails, snail eggs, and some parasites. Reference: Aquarium Medications Part 3; Potassium Permanganate
    PPM – Parts Per Million, 1 ppm = 1 mg/L
    PPT – Parts Per Thousand
    PSI – Pounds per Square Inch
    PVC – Poly Vinyl Chloride, used for piping and plumbing.
    PWC – Partial Water Change
    PUR – Photosynthetically Usable Radiation, another term for photosynthetic action spectrum. Reference: Aquarium Lighting; Complete & PUR vs PAR in Aquarium Reef/Planted Lighting; LED Wavelengths

  • Q:

    QT – Quarantine Tank. Reference: Aquarium Disease Prevention
    QT – Quart of liquid
    QM – Quality Marine USA, generally regarded as the premier seller of wholesale marine livestock, and now freshwater too.

  • R:

    RCS – Red Cherry Shrimp, Neocardinia heteropoda var. ‘red’
    RDSB – Remote Deep Sand Bed
    RO – Reverse Osmosis, a type of water purification that removes most contaminants & minerals, but leaves some ions. Reference: Do Fish Drink? Use of RO, Soft Water for Aquarium; Osmoregulation in Fish
    RO/DI – Reverse Osmosis, followed by De-Ionization, a type of water purification to removal all minerals and mineral ions. The result is 100% neutral water with a pH of 7
    RMA – Return Merchandise Authorization. Many larger aquarium/pond supply retailers requires these be filed before returning defective, damaged, or simply unwanted merchandise. This is often a way to lower return numbers in the same way companies know that many rebate offers are not returned. I suggest to look for online businesses that do NOT require RMAs!
    RTN – Rapid Tissue Necrosis, protozoal infection of corals; can be rapidly fatal if not treated.
    RUGF – Reverse flow UnderGravel Filter

  • S:

    SAE – Siamese Algae Eater, Crossocheilus oblongus
    SAL – Salinity
    SG – Specific Gravity, a measurement of saltwater density, generally the most simple measurement of the amount of salt in a marine aquarium, although not as accurate as an Aquarium Refractometer.
    Si – Silicon
    SPS – Small Polyped Scleractinian, stony corals with very small polyps. Reference: Acropora Coral Information and Care; Lighting, Amino Acids, more
    Sr – Strontium, an alkaline earth metal.
    STN – Sudden Tissue Necrosis, protozoal infection of corals; can be rapidly fatal if not treated.
    SW – Salt Water or Sea Water

  • T:

    T5HO – T5 High Output light bulbs. Reference: Aquarium Lighting; Complete
    TDS – Total Dissolved Solids, the portion of solids in water that can pass through a 2 micron filter. Reference: Do Fish Drink? Use of RO, Soft Water for Aquarium; Osmoregulation in Fish
    TFC – Thin Film Composite, a type of RO membrane.

  • U:

    UGF – Under Gravel Filter, a method of aquarium filtration
    UV – Ultra Violet, a spectrum of light. Commonly the UVC Spectrum is used for aquarium or pond sterilization and clarification as well as improved Redox balance by better UV Sterilizers generally found at higher end retailers. Reference: Aquarium/Pond UV Sterilization
    UVC – The effective sterilization spectrum of UV light energy

  • V:

    V – Volt
    VHO -Very High Output, a type of fluorescent light. Reference: Aquarium Lighting; Complete

  • W:

    W – Watts, a unit of power
    W/D or WD- Wet-dry, a method of aquarium filtration that is excellent at ammonia/nitrite removal, but also often results in high nitrates. Often used in the wrong aquarium applications and is often incorrectly recommended, especially for planted aquariums. Reference: Aquarium Filtration
    W/gal – Watts per Gallon
    WC – Water Change
    WC/PWC – Water Change/Partial Water Change
    WCMM – White Cloud Mountain Minnow
    WPG – Watts Per Gallon, a generally outdated method of measuring light requirements, however it is still useful when comparing apples to apples. Reference: Aquarium Lighting; Complete

  • X:

    None at this time

  • Y:

    None at this time

  • Z:

    ZC – Zoanthid Coral, a family of corals. Reference: Zoanthid Reef Aquarium Care & Lighting

A similar but LESS accurate list can be found here:
About Home; Aquarium Acronyms
It misses VERY important terms such as PUR and PAS while missing important leaders of the aquarium hobby/industry too

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REDOX IN AQUARIUMS

Redox In Aquariums

From the full article:
THE REDOX POTENTIAL IN AQUARIUMS (& PONDS); How Redox Balance Relates to Good Aquatic Health

(With Permission from Carl Strohmeyer)

Revised 5/24/16

Aquatic Redox Overview

Redox Basics, reduction, oxidation Unfortunately this aquarium/pond parameter is Not a well known process among many aquarists, the implications of Redox for a healthy aquarium are quite far reaching, and thus important for any aquarist considering moving from basic aquarium (or pond) keeping to advanced to understand.
Aquarium keeping professionals used to believe that a higher oxidizing Redox was best, but much research as well as observations and tests have shown this to simply not be true, rather a balanced Redox.
Unfortunately many aquarium keepers still subscribe to this view, especially those who only get their information from aquarium keeping forums, even though there is so much evidence to the contrary, especially in human medical research which has shown higher Redox in sick patients than in healthy patients (especially with cancer).

Redox, also known as Redox Potential, oxidation potential, & ORP (oxidation reduction potential) describes the ability for the loss of an electron by a molecule, atom or ion to the gain of an electron by another molecule, atom or ion. Without this ability to gain electrons many minerals cannot be absorbed and properly assimilated. So it is very important to keep a healthy Redox Balance via proper dissolved oxygen levels, UV Sterilization, and proper positively charged mineral levels (such as Calcium and Magnesium).
(Please click on the picture above/right to enlarge for a better view)

These three factors have the most affect in Redox Balance Maintenance in Aquariums and ALL are important

  • Water Changes; this is the most obvious and simple, however this is often not sufficient and sometimes the new water used does not have adequate mineral ions (especially if RO water is used even in part), so supplementing with mineral replenishers (such as SeaChem Replenish, Wonder Shells, Instant Amazon, etc.) even during water changes may be necessary.

    Product Sources:
    *SeaChem Replenish Trace Mineral Ion Supplement
    *Wonder Shell; Aquarium Mineral Ion Replacement Block

  • Addition of positive mineral ions in between water changes, especially during times of stress or high bio loads can increase the Redox Reduction to counter oxidative affects on fish.
  • Use of a true UV Sterilizer which impacts Redox Balance in a different way than water changes or additional minerals; the UVC irradiation destroys destructive oxidizers in the water column which can otherwise add oxidative stress to fish. This is done by changing the magnetism of the water, aka magnetically charged water.
    It is worthy of note that with the influx of cheap UV clarifiers masquerading as true high dwell time level one UV Sterilizers sold via Amazon, eBay, AquaTop, etc; that these will not help with this aspect of Redox maintenance.

    This unfortunately is an area again where some reef keeping forums that are still in the dark ages have not caught up to human studies in Redox and rH.
    Quote:
    A High Dwell Time UV Sterilizer works similar to the ozone layer in our upper atmosphere (except in reverse); although the UVC emitted by the sterilizer is itself an oxidizer, the interaction of the UVC inside the unit with oxidizers such as ozone is such that the UV Sterilizer REDUCES these oxidizers and free radicals as well as potentially magnetically charges the water.
    This was confirmed by Dr. Mamoon Kundi in an email he sent to the author of another Redox article I quote from often in this article as per his work using UVC to balance Redox in human studies, and thus improving immune function.

    Reference: Aquarium Redox; Background

KEY ASPECTS OF REDOX:

*Oxidation describes the loss of an electron by a molecule, atom or ion
Example: Redox processes such as the oxidation of carbon to yield carbon dioxide.

*Reduction describes the gain of an electron by a molecule, atom or ion.
Example: The reduction of carbon by hydrogen to yield methane (CH4).

Another example: Calcium or Magnesium which initially are composed of positively charged atoms immersed in a sea of movable electrons may have given up all possible electrons to cells under oxidation. It is for this reason, then, that calcium and magnesium supplies must be constantly renewed; without this “fresh” calcium (positively charges calcium and other mineral ions), etc. your Redox balance will suffer.

Think of it this way; a storage battery “works” only when a positive and a negative electrode are present to maintain an electrical current. When the positive plates become exhausted, the battery is no longer any good (even though the metal plates and other “ingredients” for the battery are still present; so it is that your GH or Calcium Test may show adequate minerals, but these minerals have been oxidized an thus rendering the test inaccurate).

The above are over simplifications of the process, so please read on as I will go into further depth as the article progresses, especially as Redox relates to aquatic health.

Oxidized Water:
Oxidized water with its Redox potential of +700 to +800 mV is an oxidizing agent that can withdraw electrons from bacteria and kill them. The oxidized water can be used to clean hands, sterilize utensils, and treat minor wounds.

Here are a few oxidizers: ozone (O3; Oxidation potential= +2.1), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; Oxidation potential= +1.82), chlorine (Cl2) and chloramines (NH2Cl).
Further Reference: Aquarium Medications, Part 3, Chemical Treatments, Hydrogen Peroxide

Reduced Water:
Reduced Ionized with a Redox Potential of -250 to -350 mV readily donates its electrons to unusual oxygen radicals and blocks the interaction of the active oxygen with normal molecules. Substances which have the ability to counteract active oxygen by supplying electrons are called scavengers.
Reduced water, therefore, can be called scavenging water. Reduced water inhibits excessive fermentation by reducing indirectly metabolites.

Here are a few reducers, in other words, elements or processes that transfer electrons to another substance;
Magnesium, Calcium, Sodium, and the process of Photosynthesis which involves both oxidation and reducing.

Elements such as most metals, as well as essential elements for aquatic life; Calcium and Magnesium are major reducers however because of this they are also most easily depleted. It is noteworthy that elements with the highest reducing or oxidation potential are also the most easily depleted in their oxidation or reducing properties.
Reference: Aquarium Chemistry, Calcium, GH, KH, pH, Positive Mineral Ions

What is important to note, is that although oxidation is a necessary part of biochemistry for fish and all animals (such as for energy production), the normal healthy state is one of reduction. During normal biochemical processes molecules that are normally reducers give up their electrons (in much the same way a car battery does until re-charged), so without a recharging via the addition of new minerals that are high in these electrons or even processes such as UVC sterilization (or even high PAR lighting), your aquatic biochemistry will suffer and eventually so will your fish!
Further Resource: Aquarium Lighting; PAR

It is noteworthy that even if you have a UV Sterilizer, but fail to change your UV Bulb every six months, this tool for a balanced Redox will quickly become less effective.

Product Sources:
*Level 1, Redox Balance Capable UV Sterilizers
*UV-C Replacement Bulbs; High Output, Level 1 Capable

One more basic generalization to consider before reading the more in depth article is this: Water that is of low pH (acid), in general, measures high ORP while water of high pH (alkaline) measures low ORP. However, in natural water (generally spring water), acidity of minus ions and alkalinity of plus ions can coexist.
More about this subject here:
Natural Redox.

It is important to note that Aquarium Redox can be a complex subject with some basic principles to also understand, however this is a subject that simply reading one section of this article will yield incomplete information. For this reason I recommend reading the whole article.

For the full article (including management & summary) please follow click here:
THE REDOX BALANCE IN AQUARIUMS (& PONDS)

I also urge my readers to read this article about ultraviolet sterilization use in an aquarium or pond. This is an IMPORTANT read if you are even remotely considering the purchase of a UV Sterilizer, especially since the market of late has been flooded by mostly cheap ineffective UV Sterilizers!

Aquarium or Pond UV Sterilization
“UV Sterilization”

AAP,Hanna ORP, PH, Temperature Meter H198121
For readers seeking to step up to a higher level of Redox awareness in your aquarium, including the even newer studies in rH (relative Hydrogen) and its importance in measuring Reddox in aquariums, I might suggest a good Redox Meter such as the one pictured to the right.

Product Resource: AAP/Hanna ORP, PH, Temperature Meter #H198121

OTHER RELATED/SUGGESTED READING FOR AQUARIUM OR POND KEEPING:

* How Aquarium or Pond Fish Medications Work
A top notch article that starts off with this page (1) about use, types, what to do and not to do and then breaks into 3 more separate web pages with even more specifics

* Aquarium Lighting; Complete
This is easily the most complete and authoritative article on the subject of aquarium lighting. It is noteworthy that there is evidence that correct lighting has a positive effect on aquarium Redox Balance

* Aquarium Nitrogen Cycle
One of the best articles on the subject of the nitrogen cycle for fresh or saltwater aquariums

*Pond Algae

*Pond Care, Information

Copyright 2016, By Steven Allen

IRIDOVIRUS IN GOURAMIS

Iridovirus in Gouramis
From the full article: EDIS; Iridovirus in Gouramis
By RuthEllen Klinger, Ruth Francis-Floyd, John Slaughter and Craig Watson

What Are Iridoviruses?

Iridoviruses are a family of viruses (130–300 nanometers in size) that contain DNA as their genetic material and have an icosahedral (20-sided) capsid. Iridoviruses have been found in a wide variety of fish, including both freshwater and saltwater species. Some iridoviruses have been associated with serious diseases (e.g., viral erythrocytic necrosis of salmonids) while others have only been found in apparently healthy animals (e.g., goldfish iridovirus). One iridovirus causes a disease called lymphocystis which causes unsightly skin lesions on infected fish, but otherwise is of little consequence.

Iridovirus in Gouramis

An iridovirus was found in spleen and intestinal tissue of gouramis from the genus Trichogaster that were dying with signs of systemic disease. Mortality rates of affected fish have varied from low (0.5–10%) to moderate (50%) with death usually occurring 24–48 hours after the onset of signs. Clinical signs associated with the presence of the iridovirus have included darkening of body coloration and lethargy. Sick gouramis often stop eating and the abdomen may be distended. Internally, an enlarged spleen has been the most notable abnormality. The intestine may be reddened, and a clear amber fluid may be present in the body cavity. Laboratory examination for bacterial, fungal, or parasitic agents has frequently been negative. Through electron microscopy (EM), abundant iridoviral particles have been found in the spleens and intestines of dying fish.

An iridovirus has been isolated in cell culture and cytopathic effect (death of infected cells) has been observed. Although the iridovirus has been implicated as a possible cause of disease in gouramis, efforts to reproduce the disease under laboratory conditions have not yet been successful.

Level One UV Sterilization can also help with prevention both by killing any viruses outright that pass through the UV Sterilizer and by improving Redox Balance.
Proper flow rate, installation, even the correct UV (as many now sold are junk), and proper maintenance (which includes changing the UV Bulb) are essential this tool being effective for prevention of Iridovirus in Gouramis.

For the full article (including management & summary) please follow click here:
EDIS; Iridovirus in Gouramis

Further reference:
RuthEllen Klinger, Biological Scientist, Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences; Ruth Francis-Floyd, Associate Professor, Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences; John Slaughter, Veterinarian, Hillsborough County Extension Service; Craig Watson, County Extension Agent, Hillsborough County Extension Service; Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.

OTHER RELATED/SUGGESTED READING FOR AQUARIUM OR POND KEEPING:

*A Healthy Aquarium, Disease Prevention
An excellent step by step scientifically tested method to keep more disease free fish in an aquarium (or pond)

*How Aquarium or Pond Fish Medications Work
A very in depth article, divided into 4 total web pages

*Aquarium Lighting Facts & Information
In my experience, this is by far the best and most accurate article on the subject. Any obvious biases are well backed up by factual research.
It includes information about the growing in popularity LED Aquarium Lights.

Copyright 2014, By Steve Allen